Home | Contact Us | Sitemap | Login| StoreNEW | Bookmark this site!   

Advanced Structures

Forms of DNA:

DNA exists in several physical variations, known as forms. These variations consist of small physical differences between bonding angles, or connection distance, which result in a radically different shape of the overall DNA molecule.


Although there are many more recognized forms, three of the predominant, likewise, the only three observed in living organisms, are: A-DNA, B-DNA and Z-DNA (Seen Below). The B-DNA is the predominant DNA type found in the cells of living organisms; represented by the familiar double helix winding pattern.

DNA Forms

Quadruplex Structures:

DNA structures, rich in Guanine (G), form what are commonly known as G-Quadruplexes. These are 'tetramolecular' structures with many practical uses just waiting to be discovered. Currently, Quadruplex connections are being used in anti-cancer research.

Basically, a predominant base, found in a repeating chain and known as a tolemere, acts as a 'connector' allowing the DNA molecule to bind with other DNA molecules into a larger, super-molecular structure. Generally, the base in question (A,C,G,T) will determine the 'type' of quadruplex structures developed.

DNA G-Quadruplex

Branched DNA:

DNA is known to fray at the ends where 'non-complimentary' regions are present in chains of otherwise complimentary connections. When such is the case, the frayed strands are able to 'hybridize' with other frayed strands, creating crossovers resulting in branch-like DNA structures.

DNA multi-branch

Advanced Structures of DNA

Forensics Mrna Biotechnology Purification Pcr Dna Solution Protein Synthesis Gels Mouse Dna Biology Dna Sds Page Paternity Test Testing Forensic Science Protein Sequencing Genetics Forensic Oligonucleotide Paternity Testing Mitochondrial Dna Ph Electrophoresis Paternity Rna Polymerase
Intro to DNA | Chemical Structure | Biological Function | Advanced Theory | Practical Applications | Research & Study