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Advanced Structures

Forms of DNA:

DNA exists in several physical variations, known as forms. These variations consist of small physical differences between bonding angles, or connection distance, which result in a radically different shape of the overall DNA molecule.

Although there are many more recognized forms, three of the predominant, likewise, the only three observed in living organisms, are: A-DNA, B-DNA and Z-DNA (Seen Below). The B-DNA is the predominant DNA type found in the cells of living organisms; represented by the familiar double helix winding pattern.

DNA Forms

Quadruplex Structures:

DNA structures, rich in Guanine (G), form what are commonly known as G-Quadruplexes. These are 'tetramolecular' structures with many practical uses just waiting to be discovered. Currently, Quadruplex connections are being used in anti-cancer research.

Basically, a predominant base, found in a repeating chain and known as a tolemere, acts as a 'connector' allowing the DNA molecule to bind with other DNA molecules into a larger, super-molecular structure. Generally, the base in question (A,C,G,T) will determine the 'type' of quadruplex structures developed.

DNA G-Quadruplex

Branched DNA:

DNA is known to fray at the ends where 'non-complimentary' regions are present in chains of otherwise complimentary connections. When such is the case, the frayed strands are able to 'hybridize' with other frayed strands, creating crossovers resulting in branch-like DNA structures.

DNA multi-branch

Advanced Structures of DNA

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