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Organizational Structure

The DNA molecule is composed pr imarily of two main polymer strands, each one shaped like a helix. The structural helix of each polymer strand curves around its 'partner' strand forming what is typically referred to as the 'double helix' form (Also referred to as the 'B' form)

 

Physically speaking, each pair is located exactly 0.34 nanometers away from its closest neighbour, and each turn of the helix is about 3.4 nanometers long. Henceforth, there are about 10 base pairs connecting the two polymers per every complete twist of the helix's structure.

 

Below is another structural representation of the DNA molecule, using basic chemical notation. As you can see in this diagram, the two polymer strands are running in opposite direction. Each chemical base (symbolized in the square box) is connected to a sugar. The chemical combination of the sugar and base are known as a nucleoside. Connecting two nucleosides together is done by the presence of a phosphate group. The singular combination of a nucleoside with a phosphate group is chemically known as a nucleotide. Each genetic chromosone in the DNA molecule is made up of hundreds of thousands of nucleotides connected in the double helix polymer strands.

 

DNA Structure

Organizational Structure

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