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DNA's Chemical Makeup

As already mentioned in the previous section, DNA is made up of specific molecules including sugars, phosphate groups and its functional 'bases'. This section will outline the primary chemical makeups of these particular molecules.


The nucleotides themselves, which make up the backbone of the polymer strands consist of a sugar (known as a pentose because of its nuclear shape), a phosphate group and a base (either Adenine, Cytosine, Guanine or Thymine). Below are some pictures of the chemical nucleotide.

DNA nucelotide


The bases, separated into two different groups, known as the purines and the pyrimidines are illustrated below in terms of their chemical makeup. (Also included in this diagram is Uracil, which although closely related to thymine, is actually a part of the RNA molecule, as opposed to the DNA molecule.

DNA Base Pairing DNA Base Pariing 2

DNA Bases

Chemical Makeup

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