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Functions of DNA, Biological Process, Behavior

DNA is ordered into a sequence of structures called ' chromosomes'. During a process known as 'DNA replication', these chromosomes are duplicated, whereby the duplicate strands of DNA are then 'inserted' into newly divided cells. Thus the genetic code of the organism in question is carried (as a blueprint) into every living cell within that organisms structure. Below there is more information on this process, including roles and functions of the DNA molecule. These processes include replication, synthesis, and more. Immediately below we begin to discuss DNA replication.


DNA replication is the very basis behind 'how' genetic information, hence physical characteristics are transferred between living beings. The process, known as semi conservative (because of the way genetic information is 'conserved' during the replication process), essentially divides the DNA molecule into two separate halves, whereby each half is copied onto a parallel strand, joining in turn to one of the original halves and thereby 'recreating' two new DNA molecules out of one 'old' one.

. DNA aprallel strands

The act of replication of any DNA molecule, involves the ' splitting' or ' unwinding' of the strands themselves. The split itself occurs between the locally attached bases which hold the strands ( polymers) together. Hydrogen bonds between the bases are dissociated leaving a long polymer chain of nucleotides with singular bases attached.

Proceeding the splitting of the polymers, a special enzyme known as DNA polymerase 'synthesizes' new DNA by attaching complimentary bases to the singular bases already on each single strand, along with an additional polymer strand of nucleotides. Although there are other proteins associated with this reactive synthesis, it will not be necessary to delve into their function at this moment.

DNA polymerase


The synthesis of the DNA itself is regulated by the biological rhythms and necessity of cellular division. Basically, reactions between various proteins lodged within a cell become responsible for initiating 'check points' whereby the process of cellular division is 'measured' internally, reminding specific functions (such as the synthesis of new DNA) when to happen.

Interestingly enough, one might readily assume a high level of errors within the synthesis of new DNA, leading to biological mutations and other unwanted developments. This however, is not the case. DNA synthesis is a highly and well controlled function with several levels of redundancy in terms of error correction during replication.

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