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Purpose of DNA

DNA's Functional 'Biological' Purpose:

DNA has two main biological functions (aside from being a very elegant looking macromolecule). Primarily, it serves to store/determine the biological characteristics of any living thing according to a very specific arrangement of molecular connections, as will be defined in a later section of this site. Secondarily, DNA serves the purpose of biological synthesis in terms of the creation of cellular proteins and RNA molecules.

Primary Purpose: (Information Storage)

The DNA molecule consists of two long polymer chains of simpler molecular units called nucleotides. The nucleotides have 'backbones' attached to them made out of sugars and phosphates. Attached to each sugar molecule is a specific 'base' (where base refers to the 'basic necessity' of the component within the DNA chain, rather than any other chemical representations).

These bases, defined later within the site, attach to each other through hydrogen bonds. It is the sequencing of the bases which connect the two polymer strands together that ultimately determines the natural characteristics of the biological entity in which that (particular) DNA exists.

Thus, genetic coding is born, where a lifeforms physical traits and characteristics are stored within the molecular formula of this particular macromolecule.

Secondary Purpose: (RNA Synthesis)

DNA directs the synthesis of RNA under a chemical process known as transcription. Basically, what happens, is that cellular enzymes are directed by the genetic code itself to recreate strands of RNA in relation to the coded sequences stored in the DNA itself. These strands, known as mRNA (or Messenger RiboNucleic Acid), carry information about the genetic code into the protein-synthesizing mechanics of the cell, whereby, they induce a particular arrangement of amino acids within the protein assembly, which in turn dictates and governs the physiological characteristics of the organism in question.


DNA, RNA and mRNA are basically all constructed the same way, except for a slight difference in one of the four bases that make up the connections of the nucleotide molecules. Because of this, the transcription process is a relatively simple process, despite the large number of sequences involved in the process itself.

Thus the information 'stored' in the genetic code of the DNA sequence is now 'transcribed' into a 'messenger' function, which illicits a specific type of development from the cell itself in terms of protein fabrication, which in turn ultimately determines the nature of growth that develops from the DNA 'seed'.

Purpose of DNA - Books on Sale and More

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